During growing up raring calves, the defining period is the milking period of their life, when immunity develops. In the first hours after birth, the calf acquires passive immunity only through colostrum, as a result of which antibodies appear in its blood. Colostrum is the secret of the mammary gland of cows, allocated in the first days after calving. Colostrum has a viscous consistency, a salty taste and a yellowish brown color, due to the high content of carotene (50-100 times more than in milk). In the colostrum of the first day of dry substances 2 times, proteins - 2-5, and albumins and globulins - 20-25 times more than in milk. The content of mineral salts in the colostrum is about 1.5 times higher than in normal milk, and therefore its acidity reaches 50 degrees. By 7-10 the chemical composition of milk is normalized.
In the first months of life, all the necessary nutrients the organism of calves receives with the mother's milk. However, the cultivation of calves on natural milk is economically unprofitable, an effective alternative is the use of cow milk replacers.
It is known that the composition of natural cow milk includes numerous components: 20 amino acids, 147 fatty acids, 30 macro- and microelements, 23 vitamins, 20 glycerides, enzymes, phosphatides, etc. It is the multicomponent composition of milk that creates the main difficulties in the development of recipes for cow milk replacers.
Cow milk replacers are ready-made, high-nutritious dry feed mixtures, developed on the basis of the latest achievements in the physiology of digestion and feeding, ensuring proper growth and development of raring calves. A prerequisite for the production of any cow milk replacers is the use of high-quality feed containing readily available nutrients.
The main components of cow milk replacers are secondary products from the processing of whole milk - skimmed milk, buttermilk and whey, including partially delated.
Cow milk replacers contains a large amount of dry skim milk, the quality of which depends on the method of drying. High quality of the product is provided only by spray drying technology. In addition to dry milk components, whole milk cow milk replacers, vitamins, macro- and microelements, emulsifiers, antioxidants, flavoring agents. As high-protein components in the cow milk replacers, fodder yeast is also used. Cow milk replacers, developed by foreign companies and sold in Russia, often introduce soy protein, and new products of the Dutch firm Nutrifeed contain hydrolyzed wheat protein concentrate, which is completely dissolved in water.
Cow milk replacer is a dry, fine powder with a pronounced flavor of components and flavor additives introduced into it, white with a creamy shade and dark impregnations (phosphatides). Developed more than a hundred recipes cow milk replacers with a wide variety of ingredients. After their experimental and production tests, normative documentation is developed and approved in the form of technical conditions and technological instructions. In such documentation, in accordance with the formula cow milk, the moisture content, fat, protein content, energy supply, acidity index, product solubility index, total permissible amount of microorganisms per 1 kg of product are indicated.
For calves, cow milk replacers are diluted (reconstituted) with water that meets veterinary and sanitary requirements.
When used cow milk replacers should take into account several factors that determine the effectiveness of their use. The first factor is the amount of dry matter in one liter of reconstituted cow milk replacers. Optimal is the content of 125 g of dry matter in one liter of reconstituted milk, which is achieved by diluting the powder with water in a ratio of 1: 8. As a rule, such a ratio is recommended to withstand when drunk Substitutes of whole milk from 7-8 days to 20-21 days. Calves older than this age can be feed by bottled cow milk replacers, diluted in a ratio of 1: 9, which will correspond to a content of about 105-110 g of dry matter in 1 liter of the product. Breeding cows by milk replacers with more water is strictly prohibited. The fact is that in the oral cavity of the calf at the entrance to the larynx there are receptors that recognize and regulate the flow of fluid into one or another section of the complex stomach by closing the esophageal trough. Recognition of milk or its substitute and drinking water occurs according to the viscosity of the liquid, which depends on the content of dry matter and temperature in it.
The second important factor is the temperature of reconstituted milk. It should be close to the body temperature of the calf, which is 38-39 ° C. If the temperature of the diluted milk is below the specified values, then part of the energy will be spent on heating the milk to body temperature, only after which the digestion of nutrients begins. Thus, the lower the temperature of milk, the greater the unproductive energy costs.
Replace the cow milk replacers in two steps. First, the necessary amount of powder is weighed, then it is mixed with water with a temperature of about 50 ° C (about half the required amount). You can use a variety of mixers, up to washing machines. Mixing is carried out until the lumps are completely dissolved cow milk replacer, then add the rest of the cooler water so that before the brewing the temperature of reconstituted milk is between 38-40 ° C.
Another factor to consider milk replacers, especially the first two to three weeks of life, is the live weight of the animal. Because calves are born with different live weight, and the capacity of the abomasum is different. It is recommended to milk calves with milk or cow milk replacers in one dose in the amount of 4.5-5.0% of body weight. In general, the rate of consumption of cow milk replacer per animal depends on the drinking scheme adopted in the household, taking into account that 1 kg of reconstituted cow milk replacer can replace 1 kg of whole milk.
Widespread use cow milk replacers for animals are due not only to economic benefits, but also to other benefits. It is known that the composition of cow's milk varies depending on the periods of lactation of the animal, the season of the year, etc., while the composition of cow milk replacer is always stable. Cow milk replacer can avoid the spread and transmission of diseases such as infectious rhinotracheitis, tuberculosis and others.
It is known that proteins of natural cow milk by 70-75% consist of casein fractions and 25-30% of albumins. Casein on admission to the abomasum under the action of enzyme forms a cheese-like clot, which is digested for about six hours. In this regard, the calf does not feel hunger until the next feeding. Protein as a substitute for whole milk for 70-75% consist of albumins and only 25-30% - from casein fractions, so the time of digestion cow milk replacer is about one and a half hours. Since the stomach is quickly released, the remaining 4.5 hours of calf because of hunger consumes plant foods - hay and concentrates, which leads to early development of the rumen and good weight gain. The development of the rumen.
Cow milk replacers have increased significantly in the Russian Federation in recent years. The proposed substitutes for whole milk are of high quality and more perfect composition. Undisputed leader on the Russian market is the dynamically developing company Mustang Nutrition Technology, which supplies cow milk replacers to 70 regions of the country.
Mustang Nutrition Technology is the official distributor of the Dutch company Nutrifeed and sells cow milk replacers for calves and piglets Calvolac-12 and Calvolac-16. In addition, the company "Mustang Nutrition Technologies" produces similar products in Russia Kalvomilk-12 and Kalvomilk -16. A new development of the company Nutrifeed is cow milk replacers Calvolac Extra Imagro, containing hydrolyzed wheat concentrate instead of soy and probiotic complex Imagro instead of antibiotics. A similar product - Calvomilk 16 Imagro - is produced in Russia at the factory of the company Mustang Nutrition Technology.
Cow milk replacers Calvolac and Calvomilk have proven themselves in the practice of raring calves. They are perfectly balanced in the content of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, macro- and microelements, as well as essential amino acids. All substitutes of Mustang Nutrition technology are a homogenized powder of light or light brown color with a vanilla flavor, which has a high degree of solubility. Nutritional supplements give thereplacers a pleasant taste and aroma, which do not change with prolonged storage. In the finished product, the absence of pathogenic microorganisms is guaranteed.
In addition to calves and piglets, Calvolac and Calvomilk can be used as components for pre-starter and starter mixed feeds. They differ from each other in the content of fat and carbohydrates. In Calvolack and Calvomilk, 16 fat is 4% higher, and carbohydrates 4-6% less than in Calvolac and Calvomilk 12. The nutritional value of 1 kg of Calvolac powder and Calvomilk grade 16 is 3.1 and grade 12 is 2.9 Feed units.
Proteins that make up cow milk replacers are very close to proteins of natural milk, have a high degree of digestibility and are perfectly absorbed by the body. In addition, Calvolac and Calvomilk contain essential amino acids, which is extremely important for a growing organism. In the substitutes offered by Mustang Nutrition Technology, the content of carbohydrates ranges from 46.5% to 53.5%, and fats - 12% and 16%, which makes the products energy-saturated.
Schemes of growing raring calves depend on the rate of consumption of whole milk taken in the farm and the planned use date cow milk replacers For example, Calvolac and Calvomilk 16, as the most high-energy additives, allow the beginning of the replacement of whole milk from 7-8 days of the calf's life, and Calvolac and Calvomilk 12 from 14 days. It should be born in mind that the replacement of whole milk with cow milk replacers is carried out gradually, within 25% of the daily allowance per day. The consumption of whole milk before full transfer to cow milk replacers with a feed from 7-8 days of life of the calf is only 70-80 kg, and from 14 days - 90-100 kg. New cow milk replacers Calvolac Extra Imagro allows you to start feeding calves from the 5th day of life. Violation of the adopted drinking pattern is undesirable, since it can lead to digestive disorders raring calves
Thus, the use of cow milk replacers when growing raring calves allows:
Significantly improve the marketability and profitability of milk;
Grow more healthy calves;
Significantly reduce the number of diseases, the cost of medicines and veterinary services;
Get the average daily weight gain in calves at 750-850 g per day;
Maintain high practical effectiveness of products.
Most of the farmers around the world have already preferred cow milk replacers, which shows many of their advantages and merits.